Infectious Mononucleosis is more commonly known as glandular fever, and as the kissing disease. It is called such because the disease is transmitted mainly by the saliva of the infected person. The common symptoms of the disease include fatigue, weakness, sore throat, fever, skin rash, swollen spleen, loss of appetite, and swollen lymph nodes. This disease is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus. This virus specifically targets B-lymphocytes leading to reactive lymphoctyosis and the production of atypical T-cells known as Downey bodies. When observed under the microscope, these cells appear blue in contrast to healthy normal lymph nodes, which are pink. These reactive cells cause the swelling of the lymph nodes on both sides of the neck, leading discomfort and the loss of appetite.
Mononuclear leukocytes normally account for about 30% of all white blood cells. When a person suffers from this condition, these levels increase significantly to 70%. Also, the white blood count increases to 10000-20000 per cubic millimiter. Another notable change brought about by this disease is the appearance of white spots on the tonsils down the throat. These are clear signs of infection, and in addition, there is also swelling of the throat. Fever is a common symptom and occurs in all cases of mononucleosis. Fatigue is also one of the symptoms and is highly pronounced in the case of young adults.
Because this disease primarily targets young adults, the course of this disease for children is usually mild. However, people infected with this kind of disease will likely carry the virus in its dormant state for the rest of their lives. As such, there is a definite possibility that its activity will recur again in the future.
When these symptoms recur in adolescent stages, the signs are usually more severe and complications are common. One of these complications is splenomegaly, the enlargement of the spleen, which in extreme cases even leads to rupture. Another possibility is the inflammation of the liver, or more commonly known as the condition hepatitis. Other than these, people suffering from this condition sometimes experience signs of jaundice, indicating that their internal organs are functioning abnormally, and sometimes the inflammation of the throat becomes very severe leading to obstructed air passage ways.
Currently, there are no specific methods to deal with Mononucleosis. As such, the only thing that doctors can recommend is to have plenty of rest and to drink plenty of fluids. The symptoms however, may be treated accordingly. For the case of an inflamed throat for example, some antibiotic medications may be recommended to reduce the effects of bacterial infection. Also, some medication to relieve the pain caused by complications may also be taken. These medications, however, will not eliminate the virus in your body, but merely serve to alleviate the discomfort brought about by the effects of the disease.
In the absence of treatment, the most recommended mode of action is simply to prevent the disease in the first place. As people say, prevention is better than cure. To prevent acquiring the disease, people should maintain good hygiene and not share utensils, or drinks. Similarly, utensils should be thoroughly cleaned and boiled. These steps are simple but they can protect people from Mononucleosis and other diseases too. In addition, proper care of one’s self is also necessary to keep healthy.
If a person suffers from this disease there are a few things he or she can do for themselves. This disease causes sore throat. People can relieve themselves of sore throat by regularly gargling with mouth wash or salt water. This is a basic treatment of sore throat. People’s internal organs may be damaged because of this disease, as such with the case of splegnomegaly and hepatitis. You should refrain from strenuous physical activity so as not to cause injuries to your internal organs. The symptoms of this disease will naturally be at ease after 1-2 to weeks so in this period, you should focus on getting well and having adequate periods of rest.