A rare form of genetic disorder due to the breakdown or loss of myelin sheath (which is normally surrounding the nerve cells in the brain) and growing dysfunction of the adrenal gland is termed as Adrenoleukodystrophy or ALD. Leukodystrophies (a genetic disorder) is the one which damages the myelin sheath which acts as an insulator on the nerve fibres in the brain.
Sudden changes in human behaviour like abnormal withdrawal or memory loss are some symptoms. In a child it can be identified by his performance in school as the childhood form of ALD is the most severe form found only in boys aged between 4 to 10 years.
If the ALD form is identified in men aged between 21 and 35 years, the symptoms would be different. There would be mild symptoms which may include ataxia, paraparesis of lower limbs, excessive muscle tone or hypertonia, urinary problems or mild peripheral neuropathy.
In case the body is suffering from Neonatal ALD which affects both male and female newborns, the symptoms would normally be facial abnormalities, adrenal dysfunction, low muscle tone (or hypotonia), enlarged liver (or heptomegaly) and also mental retardation. This form of ALD grows fast and needs to be controlled by psychological therapy and bone marrow transplantation.